Friday, March 23, 2012

Relationship Advice: Acacia Trees and Ants

Acacia and Ants, Santa Rosa, Costa Rica
http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/tropdry.htm 



Introduction:

If one is to seek relationship advice from nature, the acacia tree and acacia ants are the ones to consult! Not only do they live in very close proximity – one literally lives within the other – but both partners also depend heavily on each other for fitness. Many species of acacia tress that are deficient in chemical defenses have developed a mutualistic relationship with stinging ants in which protection is exchanged for nutrients and a home [1]. Acacia trees and their symbiotic partner can be found all over the world in temperate, desert, and tropical regions, especially since some species of acacia trees are highly invasive [2]. They reach sexual maturity typically three years after germination, and the adult trees can be used for industrial or decorative purposes [3]. During development, the acacia trees form symbiotic relationships with ants to promote healthy growth for both the ant and the tree. Not only are the trees vigorously protected, but they also provide ants and their larvae a ready home and available nutrients.     


Description of the Relationship:

Some species of acacia trees, like the Acacia macrantha of Central American, produce bitter alkaloids to ward off predators [1]. However, for those acacia species that are deficient in chemical defenses, acacia ants act as aggressive protectors. For example, Acacia cornigera (commonly known as the bullhorn acacia) found in Mexico and Central America house Pseudomyrmex ferruginea in swollen, hollow thorns [1]. The ants, with their powerful stingers, protect the trees against destructive insects, feeding herbivores, and competing vines and vegetation that pose a threat to overcrowding and sunlight availability. In return, the tree provides shelter and nutrition [4]. Ants live within the swollen, hollow thorns of the tree, and the tree produces nutrients: protein-lipid Beltian bodies from its leaflet tips and carbohydrate-rich nectar from glands on its leaf stalk [1].

http://earthlysolutions.wordpress.com/2012/02/08/biological-communities-and-species-interactions/
A hollow, swollen thorn: home for the ant larvae.

http://www.alexanderwild.com/Ants/Taxonomic-List-of-Ant-Genera/Pseudomyrmex/8709998_bQRJk8/575648985_FG4cj#!i=575648985&k=FG4cj
A Beltian Body. 
The acacia trees that produce alkaloids grow slower than the ant-protected acacia trees because of the allocation of resources and energy. Additionally, they must grow in drier habitats where the competing vegetation grows slower since they do not have the ant gardeners [1]. Therefore, evolutionarily, this mutualistic association developed as a means to increase the fitness of both partners. Ant-plant mutualism is not rare with at least 100 other species of plants and ants exhibiting this relationship [5]. Not only can the acacia trees grow faster without any threat from insects, herbivores, and other plants, but the ants can also develop with a plentiful source of nutrition and shelter.

The mutualistic relationship is established when a newly mated queen is attracted to a tree by its odor and starts nesting inside the large, hollow acacia thorns. She lays 15-20 eggs to produce the first generation of workers. As the colony grows, more thorns become inhabited, and when the colony reaches around 400 individuals, the ants start to protect the plant [5]. The mutualistic relationship develops at this time, when both the tree and the ants benefit from the other. The association between these two partners perfectly describes mutualism because, as Claude Combes describes in our text, this bond develops “with reciprocal benefits” (11) [6].

Cost/Benefit Analysis:

In this mutualistic association, the benefits obviously outweigh the costs. The benefits to the trees include protection from feeding insects and herbivores and from competing vegetation. Costs include energy and resources used to make the nutritious Beltian bodies for the ants. They have no known function other than to provide food for the ants [1]. Acacia drepanolobium (commonly known as the whistling thorn acacia) in South Africa is called home by Crematogaster mimosa, but the tree does not provide Beltian bodies, so the ants have to forage for food elsewhere. Therefore, the ants allow insects to feed on the tree and do not provide aggression protection [1]. However, because the benefits of mutualism provide an increase to fitness, some acacia trees have developed a means to maintain the mutualistic relationship. Most plant species contain sucrose in their nectar and sap, but acacia trees provide their ants with nectar containing digested sucrose (glucose and fructose). Therefore, through evolution, some acacia ants have lost the gene encoding for the enzyme required to digest sucrose, invertase [4]. This means that these ants are bound to the tree since the only food source they can utilize is the acacia tree nectar.

Similar to the costs for the tree, the cost for the ant includes energy usage in providing protection and defense for the tree. The benefits, however, include shelter and a readily available source of nutrition. The ants require less energy in finding a suitable home for their larvae to develop, and they are not required to forage extensively for food. Therefore, the energy used in protecting the tree is compensated for by the energy saved in other tasks, so the benefits outweigh the costs. The same logic applies for the acacia tree. Less energy is devoted to producing chemical defenses, so more energy can be applied to producing food for the ants. Therefore, this mutualistic relationship works amazingly well!


References:

[1] Wolffia. "Central American Swollen-Thorn Acacias."Wayne's Word. Web. 22 Mar 2012. <http://waynesword.palomar.edu/acacia.htm>.

[2] Brennan, John. "Relationship Between Acacia and Ants." eHow. eHow, Web. 22 Mar 2012. <http://www.ehow.com/facts_6977979_relationship-between-acacia-ants.html>.

[3] Richards, Bailey. "Acacia Development." eHow. eHow, 11 Apr 2011. Web. 22 Mar 2012. <http://www.ehow.com/facts_7986996_acacia-development.html>.

[4] Cheshire. "Cheshire: Insects, Evolution, and Random Splatters from the Windshield of the Blogosphere." 26 Feb. 2009. Web. 22 Mar. 2012. <http://tachinid.wordpress.com/2009/02/26/perhaps-i-should-start-asking-acacia-trees-for-relationship-advice/>.

[5] Piper, Ross. Extraordinary Animals: An Encyclopedia of Curious and Unusual Animals. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2007. 1-3. Print.

[6] Combes, Claude. Parasitism: The Ecology and Evolution of Intimate Interactions; Translated by Isaure De Buron and Vincent A. Connors; with a New Foreword by Daniel Simberloff. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2001. Print. 






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    (7) BARENESS/INFERTILITY
    (8) DIARRHEA
    (9) ASTHMA
    (10)SIMPLEX HERPES AND GENITAL
    (11)COLD SORE
    HERPES. he also cure my friend from cervical cancer Email: drebhotasoultion@gmail.com or whatsapp him on +2348089535482

    ReplyDelete
  22. When i first heard about herbal remedy i never believe on such

    word until i found dr OSHOGBO a great traditional doctor that was

    introduced to me by a friend that suffered from Hepatitis B and

    was cure with the help of this great herbal doctor (dr OSHOGBO) so

    i decided to contact him for help in getting rid of my families

    genital herpes virus 1/2 which i did and all i was told to provide

    was just some useful information and some materials use in

    preparation of the natural cure and that i did and now i am the

    happiest person on earth because i am writing this testimony of

    mine with joy and happiness in my heart to the whole world to know

    that natural remedy is real because i am a living testimony of dr

    OSHOGBO’s traditional herbal cure and i want you all to contact dr

    OSHOGBO via his email: droshogboherblahome@gmail.com or whatsapp

    him 2347054547814 am sure he will help you too.

    ReplyDelete
  23. Hello I'm cambell by name, I'm giving a testimony about Dr.Emmanuel the great Herbalist, he has the cure to all manner of diseases, he cured my herpes disease, though I went through different website I saw different testimonies about different spell casters and herbalist, I was like: 'Many people have the herpes cure why are people still suffering from it?' I though of it, then I contact Dr. Emmanuel via email, I didn't believe him that much, I just wanted to give him a try, he replied my mail and Needed some Information about me, then I sent them to him, he prepared it (CURE) and sent it to Airfreight Online Courier Service for delivery, he gave my details to the Courier Office, they told me that 3-5 days I will receive the package and i took the medicine as prescribed by him and I went for check-up 2 weeks after finishing the medicine, I was tested herpes negative, if you are herpes positive do me a favor for you to contact him and I will try my possible best to make sure you get cured, when you contact him, make sure you tell him that I referenced you.. contact him via: nativehealthclinic@gmail.com or WhatsApp +2348140073965 or IG:@dremmanuel2

    ReplyDelete
  24. Hello I'm From Memphis Tennessee, USA I feel so joyful today because of the
    help Dr Sunny has rendered to me for getting my Husband back with his
    spell. I have been married for 4 years and it has been so terrible because
    my husband was cheating on me and was seeking for a divorce. But when i
    came across Dr Sunny Email, on the internet posted by a lady, i decided to
    get in touch with him and i explained my situation to him and then seek his
    help but to my greatest surprise he told me that he will help me with my
    case for there is no problem without a solution. Here i am celebrating
    because my Husband is back home and am really enjoying my marriage, what a
    great celebration. i will keep on testifying on the internet because Dr
    Sunny is truly a real spell caster. Why not contact Dr Sunny now if you are
    facing any challenges in your relationship life. Email {
    solutioncentre911@gmail.com } you can call Dr or whats app him via
    {+2349056393169} His Also specialize in
    1) love Spell
    2) Pregnancy Spell
    3) Divorce Spell
    4) Marriage Spell
    5) Healing Spell
    6) Penis enlargement
    7) Money Spell
    8.) You want to be promoted in your office
    9) you want to satisfy your lover
    contact this great man if you have any problem for a lasting solution
    Through his email via { solutioncentre911@gmail.com } .

    ReplyDelete


  25. Urgent effective love Spell caster to help you bring back ex lover & save you marriage fast contact:prophetoyinbojesus@gmail.com is certainly the best spell caster online and his result is 100% guarantee!. My Name Glenda his form Tx,USA. After 12years of marriage, me and my husband has been into one quarrel or the other until he finally left me and moved to California to be with another woman. I felt my life was over and my kids thought they would never see their father again. i tried to be strong just for the kids but i could not control the pains that torments my heart, my heart was filled with sorrows and pains because i was really in love with my husband. Every day and night i think of him and always wish he would come back to me, I was really upset and i needed help, so i searched for help online and I came across a website that suggested that Dr oyinbo can help get ex back fast. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he told me what to do and i did it then he did a (Love spell) for me. 28 hours later, my husband really called me and told me that he miss me and the kids so much, So Amazing!! So that was how he came back that same day,with lots of love and joy,and he apologized for his mistake,and for the pain he caused me and the kids. Then from that day,our Marriage was now stronger than how it were before, All thanks to Dr oyinbo. he is so powerful and i decided to share my story on the internet that Dr.oyinbo real and powerful spell caster who i will always pray to live long to help his children in the time of trouble, if you are here and you need your Ex back or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact this powerful spell caster now. Here’s his contact: Call/WhatsApp:+2348074066640 ,Email him at: prophetoyinbojesus@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  26. HOW DR. UNEME brought back my ex lover unemespellben@gmail.com
    Am DONNA, am from UK. After been in a relationship with my Boyfriend for 1 year now and we were planning to get married soon and all of a sudden he left me for another girl. of a truth, I really love this guy and never can I imagine life without him. I further tried all my best to get him back but all my effort to get him back in my life did not work out. It was on this faithful day, I came across some Testimonies on a website about this great spell caster called (Dr. UNEME) any persons claimed that he help them to renew their relationship and bring their ex lover back, I had to contact him because he was my last hope. I contacted him through his email and he assured me that in three days time my boyfriend is going to leave the other girl and come back to me and it was a very great surprise to see my boyfriend coming back to me after three days the spell was done. I am so very happy today that he came back to me and i achieved this with the help of Dr UNEME I equally want to use this opportunity to Tell/Advice to as many who need their ex back, if you need his help you can Contact him through
    EMAIL: unemespellben@gmail.com WHATSAPP HIM @ +2348143813120


    Thank You Once Again Dr.UNEME

    ReplyDelete
  27. Dr. Kham has really made me so much believe in him by getting me cured with his herbal treatment. i really appreciate you Dr. Kham for bringing back happiness to me again. thanks you so much, Friends join me to thank him for what he has actually done for me i pray to you all for a good life and good health, and most especially to you Dr. Kham THANKS.

    I have been suffering from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) disease for the past four years and had constant pain, especially in my knees. During the first year,I had faith in God that i would be healed someday.This disease started circulating all over my body and i have been taking treatment from my doctor, few months ago i came on search on the internet if i could get any information concerning the cure of this disease, on my search i saw a testimony of someone who has been healed from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) by this Man Dr. Kham and she drop the email address of this man and advise we should contact him for any sickness that he would be of help, so i wrote to Dr. Kham telling him about my (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man few weeks later i started experiencing changes all over me. I am now here to testify that i am not longer a herpes patient, I have experience a total transformation in my life, for all herpes patients get your herbal medicine to cure your sickness. And there has being rapid improvement in my health, I no longer feel pains and I wake up each morning feeling revived. So friends my advise is if you have such sickness or any other at all,you can contact him.

    CANCER
    EPILEPSY.
    GENPILENCIN.
    HIV AIDS.
    COPD
    DIABETICS
    STROKE.
    EXPANDS OF PENIS BREAST
    H.P.V TYPE 1 TYPE 2 TYPE 3 AND TYPE 4. TYPE 5.
    HUMAN PAPAILOMA VIRUS.
    HERPES.
    SYPHILIS.
    HEPATITIS A B and C.

    Email: dr.khamcaregiver@gmail.com Or dr.khamcaregiver@outlook.com

    His Wbesite: https://drkhamherbalhealingcenter.wordpress. com/

    WhatsApp/Call number +2348159922297

    ReplyDelete
  28. Dr. Kham has really made me so much believe in him by getting me cured with his herbal treatment. i really appreciate you Dr. Kham for bringing back happiness to me again. thanks you so much, Friends join me to thank him for what he has actually done for me i pray to you all for a good life and good health, and most especially to you Dr. Kham THANKS.

    I have been suffering from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) disease for the past four years and had constant pain, especially in my knees. During the first year,I had faith in God that i would be healed someday.This disease started circulating all over my body and i have been taking treatment from my doctor, few months ago i came on search on the internet if i could get any information concerning the cure of this disease, on my search i saw a testimony of someone who has been healed from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) by this Man Dr. Kham and she drop the email address of this man and advise we should contact him for any sickness that he would be of help, so i wrote to Dr. Kham telling him about my (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man few weeks later i started experiencing changes all over me. I am now here to testify that i am not longer a herpes patient, I have experience a total transformation in my life, for all herpes patients get your herbal medicine to cure your sickness. And there has being rapid improvement in my health, I no longer feel pains and I wake up each morning feeling revived. So friends my advise is if you have such sickness or any other at all,you can contact him.

    CANCER
    EPILEPSY.
    GENPILENCIN.
    HIV AIDS.
    COPD
    DIABETICS
    STROKE.
    EXPANDS OF PENIS BREAST
    H.P.V TYPE 1 TYPE 2 TYPE 3 AND TYPE 4. TYPE 5.
    HUMAN PAPAILOMA VIRUS.
    HERPES.
    SYPHILIS.
    HEPATITIS A B and C.

    Email: dr.khamcaregiver@gmail.com Or dr.khamcaregiver@outlook.com

    His Wbesite: https://drkhamherbalhealingcenter.wordpress.com/

    WhatsApp/Call number +2348159922297

    ReplyDelete
  29. Dr.Agbazara is a great man,this doctor help me to bring back my lover Jenny Williams who broke up with me 2year ago with his powerful spell casting and today she is back to me so if you need is help contact him on email: ( agbazara@gmail.com ) or call/WhatsApp +2348104102662. And get your relationship problem solve like me

    ReplyDelete
  30. I'm so exited to share my testimonies about the Good Work of Dr Adigba who get me cured from herpes simplex virus (HSV2) with his herbs, I never thought that I will live on earth before the year runs out. I have been suffering from herpes, I had spent a lot of money going from one Hospital to another looking for way to get rid of this disease, the hospital have been my home everyday residence. Constant checks up have been my hobby not until this faithful day, I was searching through the internet, I saw a testimony on how Dr Adigba helped someone in curing his herpes disease using his healing Herbs, quickly I copied his email just to give him a test I spoke to him, he told me that he is going to provide the herbal cure to me, which he did, after i receive his herbs and i take it as instructed i was cure permanently from herpes my herpes disease was gone. so I decided to share my testimony, that nothing is impossible with God, God use a man to healed me. No matter what you are passing through, no matter how deadly the sickness is and no matter what the situation is God that did mine is still going to do yours, people suffering from herpes, brain tumor, kidney disease, pcos, AIDS, ALS,copd, asthma, athritis,herpes, Cancer,Hpv, any kind of disease, you can rich him now via ? Gmail address: dradigba@gmail.com or whatsapp +2348077875210

    ReplyDelete
  31. I would without reservation recommend working with "Rick Simpson Oil", My honest Gratitude goes to Dr. Rick Simpson for saving my dying life with his high quality RSO Hemp Oil, with the potency of the THC content in it very high. Some years back I was diagnosed with a deadly disease cancer of the lungs, we tried all kinds of medication all to no avail and also we even tried producing the DIY Rick Simpson oil at home ourselves but we were doing more harm than worse, Until I saw a post on facebook on how Cannabis Oil had cured a cancer patient then i decided to give it a try behold when i contacted Dr. Rick Simpson & i explained every detail of my problem to him and he told me that this Cannabis Oil will heal my cancer problem only if I can order for it as soon as possible. He then calculated the dosage for me to buy i think the dosage he calculated was 60grams of the oil which I ordered plus "30grams maintenance free" I was told that if I order for the Cannabis Oil right away by the next 48 hours the medication will get to my door step through the delivery services, Immediately I ordered for it behold it was delivered with the usage instruction manual at the exact time which i was told by Dr. Rick Simpson, Today i can boldly say I'm now free from my Cancer problem all Thanks to God Almighty, Dr. Rick Simpson and my lovely wife who stood by me during those years. I'm now living a healthy life and my utmost priority of sharing this short testimony is for those who are suffering from this Deadly Cancer Disease, Please don’t die in silence there is a cure for this Deadly Cancer Disease today. Without wasting more time kindly Contact Dr. Rick Simpson for ( "Rick Simpson Oil" RSO ) via Email: cbdoilfort@gmail.com or WhatsApp +1-781-656-7138.



    Today I acknowledge the greatness of Rick Simpson Cannabis Oil and to those that wish to purchase the medication kindly contact Dr. Rick Simpson via Email: cbdoilfort@gmail.com or WhatsApp +1-781-656-7138.

    Cannabis Oil is the medication for Cancerous Disease. Save your life and that of others.

    ReplyDelete
  32. I GOT CURED FROM HERPES VIRUS I was diagnosed of HERPES virus and i have tried all I can to get cured but all to no avail,,until I saw a post in a health forum about a herbalist man who prepare herbal medications to cure all kind of diseases including #HERPES virus,at first I doubted if it was real but decided to give it a try,when I contacted this herbalist via his email and he prepared a #HERPES herbal cure and sent it to me via DHL delivery company service, when I received this herbal medicine, he gave me step by direction on how to apply it,after applying the way I was instructed,I was totally cured of this deadly disease called HERPES, all thanks to Dr OGODO Email this great herbal doctor via his email Ogodoherbalhomesolution@gmail.com
    You can also WhatsApp him on +2349044680467
    HE CAN ALSO CURE SICKNESS LIKE
    {1}HIV/AIDS
    {2}DIABETES
    {3}EPILEPSY
    {4} BLOOD CANCER
    {5} HPV
    {6} ALS
    {7} HEPATITIS
    {8}LOVE SPELL
    {9} SICKLE AND ANEMIA
    Only DR OGODO Can Help You I Love You Father.

    ReplyDelete
  33. Urgent effective love Spell caster to help you bring back ex lover & save your marriage fast, (drogunsnya@gmail.com) is certainly the best spell caster online and his result is 100% guarantee!..a whole lot of people are still suffering from all manner of issues of life. What is that particular thing that bothers you? Sometimes, the problem is not the problem but the problem is the inability to identify those who have the solution. I'm Chloe Elizabeth From Edinburgh United Kingdom and I like to introduce you to Dr ogunsnya a man who is come to rescue humanity from all issues of life. Ever since the day I had an encounter with him, that was the day my problem got terminated. When wisdom is blinking, it becomes a word for the wise. I would encourage you to relate whatsoever problem you are facing with Dr ogunsnya and be rest assured that with God all things would work together for your good. You can contact Dr ogunsnya via email: (drogunsnya@gmail.com) I congratulate you as you do so, indeed you are the next testifier.you can also call him or add him on Whats-app: +2347064365391

    ReplyDelete
  34. Urgent effective love Spell caster to help you bring back ex lover & save your marriage fast, (drogunsnya@gmail.com) is certainly the best spell caster online and his result is 100% guarantee!..a whole lot of people are still suffering from all manner of issues of life. What is that particular thing that bothers you? Sometimes, the problem is not the problem but the problem is the inability to identify those who have the solution. I'm Chloe Elizabeth From Edinburgh United Kingdom and I like to introduce you to Dr ogunsnya a man who is come to rescue humanity from all issues of life. Ever since the day I had an encounter with him, that was the day my problem got terminated. When wisdom is blinking, it becomes a word for the wise. I would encourage you to relate whatsoever problem you are facing with Dr ogunsnya and be rest assured that with God all things would work together for your good. You can contact Dr ogunsnya via email: (drogunsnya@gmail.com) I congratulate you as you do so, indeed you are the next testifier.you can also call him or add him on Whats-app: +2347064365391

    ReplyDelete
  35. Hello everyone, sharing this testimony is my greatest happiness also to let every patient know there is a cure to get rid of  HSV2. I was once a HSV2 patient  for a very long time. I have been taking medications because my doc in Canada told me there is no cure except pills to control it which i have been taking. Until I found a faithful and truthful herbalist who finally cured me with natural herbal  remedy. Everything about the virus was gone, my genital warts I have been trying to remove, they all cleared off. Here is the herbalist information to reach him via  droselumen@gmail.com or whatsapp contact +2348054265852 Dr Oselumen is great and very kind to every patient.    

    ReplyDelete
  36. Hello Friend am so happy to give this testimony about an Africa herbalist doctor called Dr Ogudugu who save my life from a herpes virus that almost took my life away, Never in my life did I think herpes virus could be cured by a herbal medicine, Thank you lord for giving me a second chance so am using this medium to reach the life of hundreds of people currently facing such diseases all hope is not lost. How ever chronic is the sickness or disease Dr Ogudugu will cure you permanently from it for i am a living testimony of his miraculous work and you can get in touch with this doctor via greatogudugu@gmail.com or WhatsApp him +2348063739701
    Visit his website: https://greatogudugu.wixsite.com/website
    I will forever be thankful to you Dr Ogudugu, God bless

    ReplyDelete
  37. The greatest Joy in my life today is that i have been cured of Herpes by a Doctor called Dr Ogudugu, I was infected with HERPES Disease in 2019, i went to many hospitals for cure but there was no solution, so I was thinking how can I get a solution,so that my body can be okay. Until one faithful day as i was browsing on the internet I saw a testimony on how Dr Ogudugu has helped people in curing Herpes and other diseases, quickly copied his WhatsApp number so i contacted him for solution for my Herpes disease, So Dr Ogudugu told me that his going to prepare his herbal medicine for my health which he sent to me, luckily after 2week my Herpes was cured. Dr Ogudugu is well recognize as one of the best herbalist doctor in Africa, you don't have to be sad anymore or cry anymore on this disease when the cure is available. The medicine has NO SIDE EFFECT,there's no special diet when taking the medicine. He also cure ALS, HIV AIDS, CANCER, HPV, DIABETES and lots more.
    For enquiries:
    E-mail: greatogudugu@gmail.com
    WhatsApp: +2348063739701

    ReplyDelete
  38. Hello everyone in this forum, I will keep sharing my own experience with the world. What Dr Ebhota has done for me, he cures my HERPES VIRUS . I was suffering from HERPES VIRUS for more than 3years until i got the email of this great herbal doctor from the internet and chose to give him a trial to see if he can really help me. To my greatest surprise this man helped me with his herbal medicine and now my pains are all gone, I went to the hospital to do some tests and the result came out negative. I am free from my HERPES VIRUS sickness and am very happy now, i would like you to email him if you are suffering from any STD on his email: drebhotasolution@gmail.com https://drebhotasolution.wixsite.com/drebhotaherbalhome/

    ReplyDelete
  39. I was infected with Genital Herpes Virus six months ago, ever since then i have been searching for cure everywhere because i was feeling so uncomfortable with it. I have been dating for almost 5 years until i contracted Genital Herpes from my ex-boyfriend. Since then i became very sad about the whole situation, always going online checking if i could get a cure to Genital Herpes, then i came across so many testimonies. Due to my seriousness and eagerness to be completely cured, i became a victim of fraud after contacting several so-called herbal doctors i was referred to. I lost a lot of money but i didn't stop searching for a cure. Then one faithful day, i came across a testimony of a lady saying that she got her Genital herpes cured by a Great Herbal Doctor she called Dr Ogudugu by contacting him through his email address. And she advised anyone with Genital Herpes or Simplex Herpes to contact the herbal doctor for Herbal Cure. I contemplated for about 4 hours whether or not to contact him. then something inside of me told me 'Nothing good comes easy'. I then contacted him through his email and told him my problem. He told me all the things I needed to do and also gave me instructions to follow, which i did properly. Just within weeks of drinking and applying the herbal medication he sent to me through dhl delivery service, i started seeing changes, i went to my medical doctor for check-up, i was so happy when the doctor told me i was no more having Genital Herpes Virus, it was all tears of Joy from that moment, People think herpes is really a minor skin irritation herpes has a long term effects on health and if i could ever meet a Genuinely Great Herbal Doctor. I'm so grateful to him. i am completely free from Genital Herpes Virus, i introduced a family friend who have Simplex Herpes virus to him, He called me and told me he was also cure completely. I promised to share my own testimony like that of the lady on the internet. Friends, if you are also struggling with Herpes disease you can as well Contact him via Email: greatogudugu@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  40. Hello everyone, I am so glad to write this article today to tell the world how Dr Ogudugu cured my (HSV VIRUS),I have been detected with (HSV-1&2) since 6years ago, ever since then my life has been incomplete bizarre and agony, I have used so many drugs that was prescribed to me by several doctors, but it didn't cure my (HSV VIRUS) neither did it reduce the pain, until a certain day i was checking for solution on the internet, then miraculously i came across Dr Ogudugu the powerful herbalist that cure numerous individuals (HSV-1 & HSV-2, HPV 1&2 INFECTIONS). Then I contacted him and explained everything to him, and he prepared a herbal medicine for me that cured my (HSV-1&2) disease totally after taking his herbal medicine as instructed. I'm so happy and glad that I'm back to normal again. So viewers why waiting and being in pain when there's someone like Dr Ogudugu that cured different diseases. So contact him via https://droguduguherbs.online or email : greatogudugu@gmail.com or WhatsApp him +2348063739701.,,THANKS

    ReplyDelete
  41. I am so Happy to be writing this review here, i am here to explore blogs forum about the wonderful and most safe cure for HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS. I was tested positive to the deadly Virus, HERPES and i lost hope completely because i was rejected even by my closet friends. i searched online to know and inquire about cure for HERPES and i saw Dr Ojamo testimony online on how he has cured so many persons from Herpes Disease so i decided to contact this great herbalist because i know that nature has the power to heal everything. i contacted him to know how he can help me and he told me never to worry that he will help me with the natural herbs from God! after 2 days of contacting him, he told me that the cure has been ready and he sent it to me via FED-EX and it got to me after 4 days! i used the medicine as he instructed me (MORNING and EVENING) and i was cured! its really like a dream but i'm so happy! that i was cured. that's the reason i decided to also add more comment of Him so that more people can be saved just like me and if you need his help contact his Email: dr.ojamoherbalhome@gmail.com you can also contact him on mobile number and via whats app +2349077406037


    You can check on his website for more info https://drojamoherbalhome.wixsite.com/welcometodrojamoherb

    ReplyDelete
  42. I have been suffering from (HERPES) disease for the last four years and had constant pain, especially in my mouth. During the first year,I had faith in God that i would be healed someday.This disease started circulate all over my body and i have been taking treatment from my doctor, few weeks ago i came on search on the internet if i could get any information concerning the prevention of this disease, on my search i saw a testimony of someone who has been healed from (HIV and Cancer) by this Man Dr Ogodo and she also gave the email address of this man and advise we should contact him for any sickness that he would be of help, so i wrote to Dr Ogodo telling him about my (HERPES Virus) he told me not to worry that i was going to be cured!! hmm i never believed it,, well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man few weeks later i started experiencing changes all over me as Dr Ogodo assured me that i have cured,after some time i went to my doctor to confirmed if i have be finally healed behold it was TRUE, So friends my advise is if you have such sickness or any other at all you can email Dr Ogodo on ogodoherbalhomesolution@gmail.com) or call him whatsapp +2348124774363
    He also specialize in treating all kinds of virus diseases such as
    [1]PENIS ENLARGEMENT [2]CANCER [3]DIABETES [4]HIV/AIDS [5]LOW SPERM COUNT [6]COPD [7]KIDNEY DISEASES [8]STROKE [9]HEART DISEASE [10] HEPATITIS
    Dr Ogodo God sent to our generation
    https://www.facebook.com/oogoherbalhomesolution/

    ReplyDelete
  43. Are you seeking spiritual solution to solve your problems? Spiritual issues, Marriage Problems, Job problems, Relationship problems,pregnant problems, i am here to see you through, there is know problems without solution i am Dr sekpese udo contact me for any spiritual assistance.
    Whatsapp +1 (210) 436-6557
    E-mail:sekpeseudo@gmail.com
    my facebook page
    https://www.facebook.com/spell.caster.healer.spiritual

    ReplyDelete
  44. Dealing with the genital herpes really fucked me up on so many occasions till i finally beat the virus permanently with the help of Dr.Ogudugu on youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sEMTffBkowE&t=26s

    ReplyDelete
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  46. We Tripowersolar provide Residental and commercial solar Solutions solar energy can purchase solar power from this project through a
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