Found mainly in tropical regions, N. americanus requires warm and moist conditions in order to hatch. Warm temperatures and high levels of rainfall seem to increase the level of transmission as was seen in a study conducted in along the coastal plain of Kwazulu-Natal province, South Africa . Treatment of N. americanus involves administering the drug albendazole which generally wipes out about 90% of the infection. Iron supplements and a high protein diet speeds up the recovery process [5,6].
In Parasitism, Claude Combes discusses the advantages of specializing in one species of host. These advantages include limiting intraspecific competition, increasing probability of genetic exchange, and decreased pressure of transmission between hosts by limiting the cycle to one host species. By limiting itself to the human species, N. americanus decreased the stress involved in having multiple host species and the transmission from one particular species to another in the cycle. However, the disadvantage to this is that it limits geographic extension, resources, and increases chances of local extinction in the host. As it is with every strategy there are pros and cons.
2. Georgiev, V.S. Necatoriasis: Treatment and Developmental Therapeutics. Expert Opin Investing Drugs 2000; 9 (5): 1065-78.
4. Appleton, C., Maurihungirire, M., and E. Gows. The distribution of helminth infections along the coastal plain of Kwazulu-Natal province, South Africa. Annals of Tropical Medicine & Parasitology 1999; 93 (8): 859-68.
6. Holzer, B. R. and F. J. Frey. Differential efficacy of mebendazole and albendazole against Necator americanus but not for Trichuris trichiura infestation. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 1987; 32 (6): 635-37.